Descriptions of the Aiki-taiso from Rod Kobayashi-Sensei:
16. Ushirodori Zenpo-nage Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. On the "One" count relax your arms and raise your fingertips (palm side down) withouth moving the upper arms while sliding forward with your left foot. Straighten out your elbows comfortably as the left foot sets forward. At the moment the left foot touches the mat, pivot on your left foot as your right arm swings to the rear and keeping your left arm forward. Your arms and back should be in the same plane. Tilt your body slightly forward, bending your knees.
Alternate left and right, repeating this exercise several times.
This exercise is a method to blend and free yourself, then eject the attacker who is holding you from behind.
17. Ushiro Tekubitori Zenshin Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. The "One" count is relax your arms and move your fingertips forward. When the arms start to naturally swing upward, turn your wrists over until the palm side is down. Slide forward with your left foot, then step forward with your right foot as you squat down as if you are drawing an attacker over your head (This is the "Two" count). Slide the left foot up under you at the end of the movement.
Repeat this exercise several times, alternating left foot and right foot.
This exercise teaches you to blend with an attacker who is holding your wrists from behind and throw them forward over your head.
18. Ushiro Tekubitori Kotai Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. On the "One" count bend your wrists gently and move your fingertips forward letting your arms raise naturally. Slide your left foot to the left and slightly back. The "Two" count is shifting your weight to the left and stepping to the left and back with the right foot, dropping to your right knee while letting your arms follow downward.
Repeat this exercise several times by alternating left and right.
This exercise is used to lead the attacker, who is holding your wrists from behind, off balance to the front while you
step out of the way.
19. Katatetori Tenkan Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. The "One" count is stepping forward with your left foot while gently offering the left hand. Immediately after offering the left hand, turn 180 degrees to the right on the ball of the left foot. Step back with your right foot then draw your left foot in to straighten your posture. The hand changes from palm down to palm up during the direction change. The "Two" count returns to the starting position through stepping forward with the right foot and offering the right hand, then immediately turning 180 degrees to the left and stepping back with your left foot ending in a straighten posture by drawing the right foot in.
Repeat this exercise several times.
This exercise is to learn how to blend with the attacker in a horizontal plane and lead them into a place where you have complete control. It is effective in leading the attacker around you so that you are able to see all around you and be ready for another attacker.
15. Udefuri Choyaku Undo
The end of Udefuri-undo counting includes a step forward with the left foot on "Four".The "One" count of this exercise has you shift your weight forward and sliding your left foot, then step with your right foot and pivot to face the opposite direction while stepping your left foot. Draw your right foot back and lower your center of gravity by bending your knees. You must be well balanced and ready to spring out forward again to return to your starting point (the "Two" count) so that your left foot is forward.This is the most often applied exercise in Aikido which helps you blend, lead and control with minimal effort.